Anti pilling - Antipilling is related to the fibres of fleece being such high quality, that pilling won't become an issue. Fuzz or fluff are fibres which have detached themselves from the actual weave. They either drop from the weave, stay loosely attached to the weave or gather on the surface of the material. In woollen weaves they often cause matting and build little knots on the surface. The phenomenon of this process is called pilling. Antipilling therefore means a subsequent treatment of the material with synthetics to prevent the detachment of tiny fibre-knots, by applying film-binding substances, which in turn cause a rougher surface and as such reduce the slippage ability of the fibres. Another method is to spray the surface with a solvent, which twist the fibres and hence work like a fine netting.
Appliqué - is a technique in which pieces of fabric are sewn onto a foundation piece of fabric to create designs.
AZO - dye stuffs referring to a chemical compound which contains two nitrogen atoms with a double bond between them. (-N=N-) as the chromophore. It is the most important group of the synthetically manufactured organic colouring materials (approx. 50%). AZO dyes are found in many of the synthetic dye classes. It is a result of a subsequent treatment of the fibre with a diazonuim salt, naphthol, phenol and amines. They are used in both dye and print procedures providing a variety of colours and wide spectrum of applications. Some AZO-dyes are used in food and cosmetic. They are easy to produce. Although some elements as benzidine and dichlorbenzidine are cancerous, the most colour manufacturers have not used them for over 20 years. (Certificate of Öko-Tex-Standard).
Application - Attaching decoration either by adhesives or sewing.
Baby Rib - it is a double-knit fabric in which the vertical rows of stitches intermesh alternately on the face and the back. Rib fabrics of this type are durable and have a good elasticity, therefore it is usually used for baby wear.
Basket weave - a variation of the plain weave in which paired or multiple yarns are used in the alternating pattern. The yarns are laid side by side without being twisted together. This makes the basket weave looser, less stable, often less durable than ordinary plain waves. Example: Hopsacking.
Body - Characteristics of body-binding in fabric are diagonally running body-lines (grades) within the material. Depending on the actual body required these are more or less pronounced. A typical fabric showing body-binding is the classic Jeans material in which clear diagonal lines run across the material.
Canvas - Originally a hemp-weave. Also known under the Latin word of Cannabis. Today's meaning applies to a meshy weave, mostly heavily treated cotton material. Canvas is also known as lattice linen.
Carded Cotton - To dissolve the flocks of the raw cotton and simultaneously free the raw cotton from impurities, such as seed capsules, leaves etc., the loose cotton is being pre-combed by a carder. The result is a fibre-fleece also known as cotton-wool. This fleece serves as preparation of the then following spinning process.
Carded yarn - is a cotton yarn that has been carded but not combed. Carded yarns contain a wider range of fibre lengths and, as a result, are not as uniform or as strong as combed yarns. They are considerably cheaper and are used in medium and course counts.
Cotton - the worlds most important textile base material, is gained from shrubs of the same name, which grow mainly in sub-tropical environments. Main countries of cotton-production are: china, Russia, >India, USA and Egypt. Cotton fibres have an average length of 20 to 42 mm. Moisture adheres fast and they do not tear easily. Cotton has a tendency to creasing and is easy to dye. Cotton is mainly used in the clothing industry, but proves also a large factor in the home-textile-industry, producing bedding , tablecloths etc.
Cotton, brushed - a finishing process in which rotating brushes raise a nap on knit or woven fabrics. Brushing is used on sweaters, scarves, knit underwear, wool broad cloths, etc.
Cotton, circular knitted - it is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. Double bed machines can be set up to knit on the front bed in one direction then the back bed on the return, creating a knitted tube. Circular needle can also be used to do circular knitting. The circular needle looks like two short knitting needles connected by a cable between them. It is specially used for T-shirts to avoid the side seams.
Cotton, heavyweight - fabrics with a weight per unit area higher than 260 g/m² are called heavyweight fabric. This kind of fabric is used for outdoor wear and for construction workers. Cotton treated with enzymes: enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. There are different results by applying enzymes while weaving the fabric. Some enzymes are used to produce variations on cotton fibres for example the stonewash effect. Other enzymes are used to partially reduce colorants creating new colour effects. Cretonne: Medium weight unglazed fabric, usually cotton, made in a variety of weaves and finishes. Generally printed with bright floral patterns. Used for curtains.
Cretonne - Is a rougher linen-like cotton-based material, matt in appearance and relatively hard to the touch. Whether in its original state, bleached, dyed or printed there are multiple purposes for its use.
Circular Knitted Cotton - Cotton yarns being knitted in a specific tubular production. The knitting needles are arranged in a circle, so that an endless, seamless tubular knit is produced. The advantage is, that for example producing T-Shirts, no side-seams are necessary.
Cotton pique - Pique is generally understood as a relief-kind of pattern within the weave of a material. Weave-pique is a dense, lightly structured, sweat-absorbing textile quality, which is almost immune to runners, and made of pure cotton. The material is mostly used for Polo-Shirts.
Colouring-Dyeing - Colouring may happen in all stages of a production. Articles, produced in large quantities are usually coloured or dyed by flock-tinting. The colour drags evenly out of the colour-bath onto the material and merges with the fibres of the material.
Combed cotton - The fibre-bands to which the the fibres are gathered before the actual spinning process, run through an additional combing procedure. This process illiminates the short fibres and alignes the long fibres parallel to one another, thus smoothing the band, which in turn enables a very fine spinning process. Combed cotton weaves are especially used for top-garments, as they have a very clear, smooth surface.
Cordura - to manufacture a Cordura fabric, Polyamid fibres are cut, spun and woven, producing a material more tear-proof then nylon. Cordura is used in the production of heavy-wear textiles, such as protective clothing, bags, rucksacks and the like.
Cotton Ribb - Ribbed cotton is basically knitwear, whereby the same amount of plain stitches and purl stitches are interchanged simulating a double crochet-pattern, like the cuffs on sweat-shirts. Ribbed materials have great elasticity.
Denim - is a heard wearing, durable cotton material mainly used for the production of jeans. The confectioned pieces of clothing receive the fashionable look via different treatments such as stone-washing etc.
Detergents - it is used for special fibres and delicate textiles. They should be washed by temperatures not higher then 30-40 °C degrees. These detergents do not contain any oxidants for bleaching.
Dyeing - a process of colouring fibres, yarn or fabrics with either natural or synthetic dyes. There are many different dyeing processes. Depending on the amount of articles the method used for a large number is the dye bath. Dyeing, fibre (stock): natural fibres are dyed before spinning into yarn.
Dyeing, solution (dope) - synthetic fibres are dyed in the liquid form before extrusion into filaments.
Dyeing, yarn (skein) - spools or skeins of yarn are immersed in a dye bath, permitting dye to penetrate to the core of the yarn. Permits the use of different colours to create a design such as a plaid or check.
Dri-Release - is being produced by mixing patented micro-fibres with a minimum amount of cotton fibres. This mixture guarantees a particular wear-comfort, combined with the advantages of synthetic fibres. The material absorbs sweat easily, dries after washing 4 times faster then cotton, is soft and natural to the touch, pilling resistant, colour-fast and keeps its shape well.
Drill - heavy-duty woven cotton similar to Denim, usually khaki-coloured, and mainly used in the production of work-clothing.
DWR Coating - A highly water-resistant coating, mostly used by soft-shell-products. Hard-wear, water-resistant DWR-coating strengthens the hydrophobic work-process of the materials and sippers, which in turn guarantees the longevity of the surface-covering on the outer layer of the material.
Elasthan - is a synthetic, elastic fibre, which serves above all to improve the fit and comfort of a garment. It proves to be extremely stretchable, easy-care and excellent at keeping the shape. An amount of 3-7% of Elasthan is commonly used in materials for the confection of trousers (pants) and shirts. For body-hugging fashion and especially for high-quality swim-wear and dessous a larger portion of Elasthan usually 30% is necessary. The higher the Elasthan content, the more perfect the body-fit of the garment.
Enzyme-treated cotton - Enzymes belong to a family of organisms, which possesss various , specific characteristics. In dyed materials, they can dissolve certain colour-particles, producing new colour-effects.Top
Fleece - is mainly used in sports- and leisure-clothing, whereby functionality has priority. Cosy, warm qualities for winter-garments. A considerably lighter quality is used for the summer-months, but it is always easy-care, as the Polyester fibres hardly absorb any moisture.
Fresh guard - a treatment with Fresh-Guard embedded into the fibres almost illiminates any kind of odour. The garment is immune to smells and feels fresh all the time. Fresh-Guard stays with the garment for more then 50 washes, and maintains the natural skin-protection.
French Terry - brushed material on the outside, soft flor on the inside.
Glen check - woollen or worsted yarn woven in a twill pattern of broken checks. Glen check patterns usually consists of checks, small regular patterns of squares woven or knitted into, or printed on, a fabric, in varying colours with overlines or overchecks of other colours. Glen checks and glen plains are the same. The glen check pattern is traditionally used for shirts and suits.
Heavy-weight-Cotton - The heavy-weight cotton usually stands for a fabric, which has a flat-weight of more then 260 gr. Per sqm and is being used for outdoor work-clothes, as for example in the building industry.
Interlock - is a knitted product, having the same appearance on both sides. It is being produced by fusing two ribbed materials with the stitch-pattern of plain and purl stitches. Interlocking the the two ribbed materials only the plain stitch-pattern is visible on both sides, whereby the purling pattern is hidden on the inside of the fusion. This production procedure provides a warming, stretchable, smooth fabric-surface, which is as good as totally immune to running. Interlock is being used for the production of high quality underwear and T-shirts.
Jersey - is a light-weight, elastic knit, with a slight ribbed structure. Via its high elasticity it guarantees an optimum of well-fitting and perfect wear-comfort. Firstly only used in the production of underwear, Jersey became very< popular in feminine Lady's fashion because of its soft pliable structure.
Jute - In character similar to hemp, Jute is a dicotyledonous plant., out of who's stem bast the fibres are gained for production. These fibres are relatively short elementary fibres, which are bunched together into fibre-bundles of up to 1.5 to 2m in length, which are then shredded before spinning. In their ripened stage, the elementary fibres are quite woody. Therefore the fibres undergo a special treatment before spinning, to make them softer and more pliable. The rougher yarns are then being used for packaging materials, upholstery, wall-coverings and as base-material for carpet-weaves and linoleum. (cotton bags are often falsely called Jute bags).
Jersey (single stretch) - Cotton Jersey is a type of knitwear , its mat surface being very different in appearance to the reverse side. It is being produced in a single stitch pattern. Jersey materials are very soft and rich to the touch and possess a good tear-strength.
Knit fabrics - are made up of a series of interlocking loops that result in a flexible construction. While all knits have stretch, they vary considerably in the amount and direction of stretch. Factors that influence stretch are the yarn and the particular knit structure employed. Knit fabrics may be tubular or flat. Knit fabrics have a great elasticity both lengthwise and crosswise, resist wrinkling, high porosity and breathable.
Knitwear - Knitted materials are being produced via the inter-looping of a single thread. Needles not dissimilar to a crochet-needle build stitch after stitch. Knitwear is either produced as a seamless tube, or via to and fro-movement into sheet-material. Knitted materials excel through high elasticity breadth as well as length. The material does not crease easily, has large porosity, is breathable, but unfortunately is prone to runners.
Linen - it is a natural fibre. One of the world's oldest fabrics, made from fibres from the stalks of the flax plant. Now it is generally combined with artificial fibres to improve crease resistance and washability. Linen fibres are much stronger and more lustrous that cotton; they yield cool, smooth, absorbent fabrics that wrinkle easily. Fabrics with linen-like texture and coolness but with good wrinkle resistance can be produced from manufactured fibres and blends. It is available in various strengths of weave. Bleached or natural (ecru) linen is a popular base for embroidery. Linen is very comfortable during the summer.
Lycra®- is the patented name for a high quality elasthan-fibre by the company DuPont. Lycra lends durable elasticity and an optimum in fit to any garment.
Mercerization - (cottons and linens) a treatment of cotton yarn or fabric to increase its lustre and affinity for dyes. The material is immersed under tension in a cold sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution in warp or skein form or in the piece, and is later neutralized in acid. The process causes a permanent swelling of the fibre and thus increases its lustre.
Micro-Faber - Is a modern high-tech fibre, usually made from Polyester. Millions of microscopic fibres build a fabric, which protects very well from outside influences such as wind and rain, but allows evaporation of the body's own moisture.
Micro-Fleece - Micor-Fleece knit with a breathable function, extraordinary wind and water-resistant. It quickly collects body-moisture and directs this to the outside, thus keeping the skin fresh and dry.
Micro-Polyester - Polyester Micro-fibres are fibres ultra-fine endless yarns, who's single fibres are finer then 1.0dtex(Deciteex), which means that 10.000m (and more) only weigh 1 gram. These light-weights are responsible for very supple fabrics with soft, floating fall. The material is used to produce washable leather-imitation such as Alcantara or permeable textiles.
Moleskin - thick, heavy cotton fabric, napped and shorn to produce a suede like finish. Tends to shrink, but is very hard-wearing. Pants, work clothing.
Machine-knits (Gewirk) - Exists through looping parallel running, vertical threads. Numerous needles build numerous stitches simultaneously next to one-another. Machined knits possess high stability against mechanical impacts and do not easily run. They maintain very good seat-absorption characteristics, however do not possess great elasticity.
Napped fabrics - a finishing process in which the fabric surface is brushed to raise the fiber ends (yarn must be spun) by means of passage over rapidly revolving cylinders covered with metal points. The resulting texture is compact, soft and warm. Fleece and flannel are examples of napped fabrics.
Nylon - is a special chemical fibre made from Polyamid. Invented in the fifties by W.H. Carothers it has become a firm component in the world of fashion. No wonder, this fabric is totally easy-care, does not crease, is hard-wearing and dries very fast, making Nylon the ideal material for sportive as well as elegant clothing.
Neck-tape - continuous, sown-in reinforcement, around the collar part of the garment, looking after a stable, comfortable fit.
Oeko-Tex Standard - the Oeko-Tex Standard comprehensively addresses the human ecology component of textile products. It evaluates and screens for any harmful substances present within processed textiles intended to come into contact with consumers. Approved Textiles will receive an Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certificate.
Organic cotton - Organic cotton is grown using methods and materials that have a low impact on the environment. Organic production systems replenish and maintain soil fertility, reduce the use of toxic and persistent pesticides and fertilizers, and build biologically diverse agriculture. Third-party certification organizations verify that organic producers use only methods and materials allowed in organic production.
Oekotex Certification - is a product-orientated system checking textiles for parameters of substances, which could be harmful to human health, such as pesticides, softeners, heavy metals, allergy-inducing dyestuffs, or formaldehyde. It also looks out for skin-friendly PH-values as a precautionary measure, to safeguard consumers health. Textiles, which pass this test are awarded the Oeko-tex-standard certificate.
Panama - lightweight, usually wool worsted fabric of basket weave (see Basket weave), popular for summer suiting before it was largely replaced by artificial fibre fabrics.
Piqué - is a light weave, with either a waffle-patterned or pearly surface. It feels particularly light and pleasant to the skin. Because of its structure, it has good absorbent qualities and is therefore used preferably in the production of sportive shirts and blouses, as well as for hand- and sauna-towels in the home-textile sector. Machine-knitted Pique is the typical material used for the production of the classic Polo-shirt.
Pilot - a woollen cloth generally made in navy blue and used for seamen' coats. It is usually a heavily milled 2/2 twill with a raised, brushed finish.
Plain weave - the simplest of the weave constructions, in which each filling yarn goes alternately over and under each warp yarn. Sturdiness varies with strength of the yarns and compactness of the weave structure. Plain weave is the basis for most prints. Examples. Muslins, voile, challis percale.
Polyester - is a fully synthetic chemically derived fibre, being produced in a variety of structures and fabric-strengths, often mixed with other fibres of different origin. Polyester dries particularly fast after washing and keeps its shape well.
Popeline - A very dense fabric, made from very fine cotton, wool, or artificial-fibre-yarns. Popeline has a finely ribbed structure and lustre to its surface, mainly used for shirts, blouses and coats.
Polypropylene - This plastic material shows a much more pronounced rigidity, in comparison to Polyethylene. Polypropylene, in short PP, is resistant to almost any organic solvents and fats, as well as most acids and caustic solutions. It has no scent of its own and skin-friendly, as such very well suited for the food-industry.
Pre-Shrinking - is a treatment of textiles, which causes a deliberate shrinking-process of the material or garment, to avoid a latter change of shape . The product undergoes a certain washing-process, thus experiencing planned shrinkage. One of the well known patented shrinking procedures is SANFO (Sanforisation), which guarantees, that the material does not shrink more then 1% in further wash and wear.
Reactive dye - a dye which attaches to the fibre by forming a covalent bond; also called fibre reactive dye Reactive dyes are known for their bright colours and very good to excellent light fastness and wash fastness, though poor resistance to chlorine bleach. Reactive dyes may be more expensive than other dye families suitable for the same fibres, especially when very dark or dull colours are considered. Within a family, the range of colours available as "pure" dyes (as opposed to mixtures) is typically quite small - a dozen or fewer. Against this, reactive dyes of the same family can generally be mixed to produce a very wide range of colours, while retaining good application characteristics and brightness. The reactivity among families varies widely, so some are easily applied at room temperature, some at boiling temperature and others at intermediate temperature. All types are suitable for exhaust dyeing, and many types are suitable for pad-batch (see padding) dyeing and for printing.
Rib knit - a single construction with rows of plain and purl knit arranged so that the face and the reverse sides are identical. The stretch is greater in width than in length. Rib knits have expansive stretch and strong recovery in the crosswise direction, which makes them especially suitable for tight fitted t-shirts, cuffs and waistbands. Most frequently is the 1x1 rib, rows of 1 knit and 1 purl stitch. The 2x2 rib has rows of 2 knit and 2 purl stitches.
Ring Spun Cotton - Ring-spun yarns are very high quality yarns. Only certain fibre qualities and length can be utilized to produce the fineness of the yarns. Firstly the cotton fibres run through a combing process, aligning the fibres into a parallel position and gathering those to a so-called pre-yarn. This is turned via continuous twisting and stretching on the ring-spin-machine to a very fine yarn. The twisting is generated by a ring running around the spindle.
Reactive colourants - Printing textiles with the so-called „discharge-process“, the material has to be reactively dyed in the first place. The fibres undergo a chemical fusion whilst being dyed. The fixation of which follows by adding heat in the presence of alcalyne solvents. Though popular because of the distinctive clearness of the colour-nuances, the disadvantage being the relative high price for this process.
Ribb - Classifies itself through high elasticity and low density as Interlock, therefore excellent for the production of figure-hugging price-orientated shirts. Most common is the 1x1 Ribb, which means stitch-pattern is: one plain, one purl. The 2x2 Ribb accordingly has a stitch-pattern of interchanging 2plain and 2purl stitches. Being of high elasticity, ribb is often used in cuffs and edging around necklines.
Ribbstop (Nylon) - are materials woven by a special technique, making them notably tear-proof. In distances of 5-8mm thicker threads are integrated into the otherwise thinner weave, which gives the weave a more or less raster-like structure. Ribbstop fabrics are light in weight but very durable.
Roughed-up cotton - To provide a surface with a lot of absorption potential, and simultaneously improving heat-retention a smooth surface has to be changed into a hairy one. Using special barbed hooks, short fibre-ends are pulled out of the finished woven fabric-surface, which reaching a certain amount, account for the well known flannel-effect.
Sateen - is a cotton fabric made in a satin weave with a satin-like finish, often found in bed sheets. The satin weave fabric has a characteristic smooth, lustrous surface, therefore it is called satin. It has a considerably greater number of yarns in the set of threats, either warp or filling (weft), that forms the face than in the other set. The sateen has a tendency to slip at the seams.
Single jersey - is since the invention of the T-Shirt, one of the most popular fashion-qualities. The fine knit follows every body-movement, is of breathable quality and feels particularly soft on skin. All these positive qualities make single Jersey the ideal material for shirts, underwear, night-wear, as well as sports- and children's-clothing.
Spandex - (Dorlastan, Lycra) a manufactured fibre in which the fibre-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer composed of at leas 85% of a segmented polyurethane. It is a flexible, lightweight fabric, often used with another fibre. It is strong, non-absorbent, has a great elasticity. Spandex is use for swimwear, ski pants and stretch clothes (pants, skirts, underwear, and blouses).
Scotchlite - is a material made by the 3M Company that is made of millions of glass beads affixed to the surface. Each glass bead is covered with a metallic reflective layer on half of its surface and this gives their reflective properties. The use of Scotchlite on garments will increase the safety of its user; since the reflex material can be seen by distances of 160 m. Scotchlite can be used as emblems or narrow stripes.
Soft shell - The soft inner side of the Soft shells are perceived like a second skin, functioning also as a transport system for moisture from the inside to the outside of the garment. In opposition to the inside, the hard-wearing outer layer protects against wind and rain. Soft Shell is ideal for the colder months of the year and sweat-producing sportive activities. This elastic material guarantees high comfort through a balanced harmony of wind- and rain resistance as well as breathability.
Sanforisation - is a process of textile shrinkage, in order to avoid later shape changes. to achieve this, the material undergoes a special washing-process. Sanfor is a well-known, patented shrinking process, which guarantees, that in further use the article does not shrink more then 1%.
Separation - Separation printing is found in the process of printing on darker materials. Via computer analysis, the normally 4-colour-set, is being dissected, separated, into as many as 13 real colours, which enables printing the material with a true-colour image.
Teflon - Trademark of Dupont. The name refers to its material polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE. Properties: stain resistant, water repellent finish applied to textiles. This treatment gives the fabric a protective coating without affecting any of the fabric's inherent properties. Frequently used in outdoor garments.
Terry towelling - is a loop-weave, either on one or both sides, depending on its purpose. When used for decorative purposes, the loop-weave is only produced on one side of the material. Double-sided loop-weaves are solely produced for quality articles which show both sides. It can be jacquard or shaft-patterned, singular-coloured, or printed. If the loops are cut, they turn into a velour quality.
Tencel - a cellulose which is won by eucalyptuses. A silky and still durably natural fibre.
Twill - one calls an especially dense, two-threaded body-binding fabric-quality, mostly produced by using cotton. Possessing the dense and yet fine binding, it is preferably used for durable, light, summer-clothing in the jeans-style. Twill is the English word for body.
Taffeta - A smooth, dense fabric, made from silk or artificial fibres. This material is often used as lining.
Tasian - is made from Polyamid fibres. Originally a smooth fibre, it is durably creased via the influence of heat. The fibre-structure having been permanently altered, Taslan materials are high abrasion resistant and feel more like real fabrics.
Tencel - is a cellulose pulp, won from the Eucalyptus trees, a silky but hard-wearing natural fibre.
Two-Ply-terry - Is mainly made of twined yarns. Due to the harder pool-loops a stronger towelling quality is achieved. Characteristics: strong grip and hard-wearing.
Underlay - When printing on dark-coloured textiles, an underlay of a light colour may be necessary, so that the brilliance of colours does not get lost.
Viscose rayon - eine Chemiefaser mit weichem Griff, nimmt Feuchtigkeit sehr gut auf.sometimes simply called viscose. Fabrics produced from the first artificial fibre. It is inexpensive, soft, comfortable (having good moisture absorbency) and dyes well.
Viscose - is a chemical fibre which absorbs moisture very well.
Walk-Terry-towelling - In this terry-towelling quality, the looping chain is made from singular yarns. Via the walk process (wet-boil-process) first of all a soft, fluffy grip is being achieved. Characteristics: high moisture absorption Walk-terry-towelling is easily recognised by its irregular not upright standing loops.
Waterproofing - via Water-column-Measurement Parameters to check the density of functional fabrics, for example rain-wear. The Water column is stating the weight of water , which can impact the fabric before it will become permeable to water, 1.000mm of Water column refer to the pressure of 1kg/dm3 From a value of for example 1.300mm onwards a fabric is certified to be waterproof.
Weave - is produced by two groups of threads crossing one-another at a 90° angle (warp and woof).
Yarn-dyed - If there are special requests to the material e..g. to be colour-fast when washed, yarn-dyed weaves are being used. The yarn is dyed directly after the spinning process and then knitted or woven.Top